mining of silver process

mining of silver process

Silver Ore The Mining Processes that Transform Ore into ...

Silver is one of the most valued precious metals in the world. It is a key player in the worlds monetary systems mainly being used to create bullion coins. Other than its use in currencies, silver also finds wide application in the creation of solar panels, jewelry, utensils, electrical conductors, water filtration, window coatings and mirrors among other things. Silver is also used the medical filed as disinfectants, in x ray machines and other medical instruments. Silver is a soft white metallic element represented by the symbol Ag and atomic number 47. The element is known to exhibit the highest reflectivity, thermal and electrical conductivity of any known metal. Silver is usually found in the crust of the earth either as a free element or more commonly as an alloy of gold or other metallic elements. It is not very abundant in native form and thus its purity is measured using a per mille measurement. In many places, silver ore is mined as a byproduct of gold, co...

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Silver has the same physical and chemical characteristics as its two group 11 neighbors in the periodic table: gold and copper. Silver is a somewhat inert metal. This is on account of its filled 4d shell is not extremely powerful in protecting the electrostatic powers of attraction from the core to the outermost 5s electron. Among all the group 11 elements, silver has the most minimal first ionization energy, yet has higher second and third ionization energies than copper and gold. It must be noted in spite of the above characteristics most silver compounds have more covalent character because of the high first ionization vitality and the small size of silver. Furthermore, silvers Pauling electronegativity of 1.93 is higher than that of lead , and its electron proclivity of 125.6 kJ/mol is much higher than that of hydrogen and very little not as much as that of oxygen . Due to its full d subshell, silver in its principle +1 oxidation...

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Silver is mined using a number of processes. One of the most common processes of extracting silver metal for the ore is the heap leach or cyanide process. The process is most popular with many miners because it is low cost, especially when processing low grade ores. To use the cyanide process the silver being in the ore should have smaller particles, should be able to react with the cyanide solution, the silver should be free from sulfide minerals and other foreign substances. The following are the major steps involved in silver mining using this method:

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Silver is naturally found as an alloy with gold or in ores that contain chlorine, arsenic, sulfur and antimony. Major Ores include chlorargyrite , argentite and pyrargyrite . The major sources of silver are lead ores, copper ores, lead zinc ores and copper nickel ores found mostly in Mexico, Australia, Bolivia, Serbia, Peru, Chile, China, and Poland. Silver is produced mainly as a byproduct of the electrolytic refining of gold, nickel, copper and zinc in the ores. In some places it is produced by the Parkes Process used to refine lead bullion. Silver meant for commercial purposes must be at least 99.9% pure. Mexico, which was the leading silver producer in the world in 2015, has produced silver since 1546. The top five silver producers in the world include Mexico, Peru, Australia, Bolivia, and China. The highest silver producing mines as of 2015 included the Rudna Mine in Poland, the Antamina Mine in Peru, the San Cristóbal Mine in Bolivia, the Penasquito Mine...

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Silver mining became a major commercial activity in 1858 following the discovery of silver deposit in the Comstock Lode in Nevada. Silver became a major mineral in the United States in 1873 when it was demonetized by the Coinage Act of 1873. Silver continued to play an important role in the United States especially during both the first and the second World Wars. In 2014 about 1,170 tons of silver were produced in the United States. This constituted to just about 17% of the silver used in the same year in the country. The deficit was filled by imports from Mexico, Peru, Chile, and Canada. Silver is mined in several states across the United States. The following are the top states mining for silver in the United States. Alaska Alaska was the top silver producer in the United States in 2015. The major silver producing mines in the state include the Hecla Minings Greens Creek mine which produced about 8,452,150 troy ounces of silver minerals in 2015 and the Red Dog Mine owned by Tech...

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