concentrating lead processing methods efficient

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concentrating lead processing methods efficient

Lead Essential Chemical Industry

Over 80% of all lead produced ends up in lead acid batteries, with lead metal as the cathode and lead oxide as the anode. In addition to starter batteries for road vehicles, these are also used for zero emission and hybrid vehicles, back up power , and energy storage in remote power applications. Figure 1 Uses of lead. The rest is used in a wide range of applications: 1. radiation screening, either as metal sheet or as lead compounds in glass to protect from radiation 2. as lead compounds added to poly as a stabiliser 3. in roofing 4. pipes and lining of vessels in chemical plants 5. protection of underground or underwater power cables Lead is also used in a variety of alloys with steel,...

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These figures are for primary production from the ore and do not include secondary production from recycled material. Data from: U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, 2016.

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About half of the world39;s refined lead comes from lead ore, the other half coming from secondary lead sources. China and Australia have the largest amounts of lead ores and are also the largest primary producers of the metal. Canada, US and Peru have smaller but significant amounts of the ores. The most important lead ore is galena . Other important ores, such as cerrusite and anglesite , may be regarded as weathered products of galena and are usually found nearer the surface. The primary manufacture of lead involves three stages: a) ore concentration b) smelting c) refining

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Globally, over 50% of the lead used annually comes from recycled sources. Indeed over 90% of lead used in the US is from recycled metal. Data from: International Lead Association, 2012. Lead for recycling may be in the form of scrap metal , or compounds of lead, such as the pastes from lead acid batteries. Clean metallic lead can be melted and refined directly, but compounds and lead alloys require smelting, using processes similar to those used with lead ores.

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